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All You Should Know On Road Traffic Survey

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In recent times there is increase urbanization and industrialisation around the world. Due to that, there is need for a matching plan to tackle these Mobility challenges. Road Traffic Survey is a detailed study of the traffic conditions of an area or section with a view to assessing the traffic prospects and the financial implications of new line projects, restorations and other traffic facilities.  

Types Of Road Traffic Survey

The types of traffic survey are:  
a.    Road Inventory Survey  
b.    Traffic Volume Survey  
c.    Origin-Destination (O-D)Survey  
d.    Spot Speed Survey  
e.    Network Speed and Delay Survey  
f.    Parking Survey etc.  

 Road Inventory Survey

This is a book (or computer disc) containing information needed to answer legal questions about roads. It can also be kept for physical maintenance purposes. The goal of a road inventory is to reduce problems and arguments associated with roads.   
The inventory should contain at least the following basic information:   
i.     Name of road

ii.     Status

iii.     Width

iv.     Approximate length  
v.    Information to be recorded
vi.    Current geometrics and pavement structure

vii.     Traffic controls

viii.     Sidewalks, shoulders, adjacent land use

ix.     Service provision and  
 x.     Intensity of non-traffic activities which encroach upon road  space.  

Road Traffic Volume Survey

Road traffic volume

The purpose of these survey is to collect data on the number and types of vehicles passing a specified point on a link (link counts), or making specified movements at a junction (turning counts).  
Volume of traffic is expressed as a rate of flow, usually either as vehicles per hour (veh/h) or vehicles per day (veh/day) which is often converted into the value "AADT" (Annual Average Daily Traffic).  

Origin-Destination Survey

Origin-destination (O-D) data is used to analyze the effect of proposals for change (for example, a new traffic management scheme, or a new road) on travel through a study area.  
The origin and destination points are the start and end zones of a trip, but can also be the entry and exit points on the study area cordon.

Spot Speed Survey

Spot speed data is used to:  
i. Determine observance of, and suitability of existing speed limits

ii. Establish suitable new speed limits

iii. Determine a suitable design speed for geometric design of highway  
iv.    Provide information for use in road safety and enforcement programs  
v.    Assist in the location of certain traffic signs  

Road traffic signs

Network Speed and Delay Survey

Average network travel times and journey speeds are a major measure of road traffic performance. Not only are they an indication of existing road link and network performance, but they help identify specific congestion spots and are important as an input to traffic models and road investment appraisals. The basic method for measuring network speed and delay (and its causes) is the Floating Car Method. The survey car is driven along a pre-determined route, at the typical speed of other cars. Surveyors in the car record the time at pre-determined timing points and the duration and cause of all stops and delays. Alternatively the distance can be measured on the street using a measuring wheel.   

Parking Survey

Parking surveys provide the data upon which the parking policy for an area can be decided. The provision of parking is obviously a major factor, primarily for private cars, in the accessibility of an area.  
i.     Car parking spaces can be classified into the following:  
    (1).     On-street or off-street  
    (2).     Public or private  
    (3).     Formal or informal

ii.  Parking Space is characterized by the following:  
    (1).     Dimensions and layout (including access roads)  
    (2).     Time controls  
    (3).     Charges and costs   
    (4).     Banned and restricted locations

iii.  Parking demand characteristics  
(1). Accumulation: This is the number of parked vehicles in an area, at any given moment.   
(2).  Parking duration: This is the time one vehicle remains parked in one place.  
(3). Parking volume: Total number of vehicles using the parking facilities over a period of time (usually one day).  
(4). Turnover: Rate of use of parking spaces, calculated by dividing the parking volume by the number of spaces.  
(5). Arrival and departure rates: This affects the design of entry and exit facilities, particularly for off-street car parks

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