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Tires are round black object, which carries the vehicle and rolls during motion and it is one of the motor vehicle parts. It is a composite material comprising of compounded rubber mass, textile fabric, steel cord and beads wires. These components are bounded together chemically and have expiring dates. Due to usage or the tyre having expired, it can disintegrate or degrade.

There is need for everyone to understand the make up of tyre, it's functions and important. It is abnormal to use tyre marked winter or snow in a tropical climate with its attendant high temperature or vise versa.

Parts Of Tires

There are three major parts of tyre; tread, body and beads.

Tyre Tread

Tyre tread

The tread is the thick rubber into which grooves are cut to form ridges. It is the thread that provides friction to move and stop a vehicle and to prevent skidding and sliding while a vehicle is in motion. Tyres meant to be used in snow have deep grooves that makes them to have a special grip.

Tyre Body

  • Gives the tyre its strength and form
  • The body consists of layers of fabric permeated with rubber
  • Each fabric layer is called a ply,and the strength of a tyre is sometimes described by the number of plies in its body.
  • The fabric in most passenger-vehicle tyre bodies is polyester.
  • Most automobiles tyres have two plies

Tire Beads

Tyre beads
  • The tyre beads are the two bands that holds the tyre to its wheels.
  • They are located along the tyre's inner edges and are made up of strands of wire surrounded by rubber and covered with fabric

Tire Codes

  • The codes on the body of a tyre specifies the dimensions of the tyre, and some of its major limitations, such as load bearing ability and maximum speed
  • Sometimes the inner side walls contains information not included on the outer side wall.
  • Tyre dates of production is usually coded as 4 digits (WWYY) found on the side wall. Example, 4319 means the tyre was produced in 43rd week in the year 2019.
Tyre date

Tire Safety

  • Specific attention should be given to tyre for safety to be ensured. Which includes pressure, tread depth and general tyre conditions
  • Over inflated tyres can burst when subject to excessive load.
  • While an under inflated tyres can suddenly go flat and make the vehicle difficult to control
  • Tyre inflation pressure and tread depth should be checked regularly in accordance with the vehicle manufacturer's recommendations.
  • Combinations of cross play and radial tyres on different wheels of the same vehicle can lead to vehicle instability and may be illegal.
  • Worned out tyres can reduce steering and braking response.
Worned out tyres
  • Sunlight or even wielding equipment can age tyres and make them more liable to burst
  • Tyre in use greater than 3 years should be replaced, regardless of tyre wear, to reduce the risk of tyre failure

Dangers Associated With Aged Tires

  • Record has it that as tyre ages, they begin to dry out and become potentially dangerous, even if unused.
  • Aged tyres threads can peel off when the vehicle is traveling at high speeds, leading to severe loss of control and perhaps a rollover or road crash.
Peeled off tyre tread


Tires must be replaced every 3 years or after covering 80,000km from date of manufacturing. In a situation where you bought a tyre with date code 3018 in 2020 it means the tyre will expire in 3021 whether it has been used or not.


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